2. REFERENCES

2. REFERENCES

1.         1700. Automatons and music boxes.

2.         1846. Morse. Telegraph.

3.         1863. EVP Electric Voice Phenomena.

4.         1887. Edward Muybridge.

5.         1896. Gramophone.

6.         1896. Loui Fuller.

7.         1896. Alfred Jarry: Pere Ubu

8.         1897. Thomas Alva Edison. Phonograph

8.         1900. Edison. Marconi. Tesla. Radio.

9.         1912. Futurism: Giacomo Balla. Boccioni

10.       1913. Luigi Russolo.

11.       1914. Mary Wygman.

12.       1916. Dadaism. Tristan Tzara.

12.       1916. Hugo Ball.

13.       1920. Leon Theremin

13.       1920. Schonberg.

13.       1924. Fernand Leger: Ballet mecanique.

14.       1925. Kinect Art: Naum Gabo.

15.       1926. Bertolt Brecht: The Radio as an Apparatus of Communication.

16.       1929. Ballets Russes.

16.        1930. Walter Ruttman.

17.       1932. Marcel Duchamp.

18.       1938. Antonin Artaud. Theater of Cruelty.

19.       1950. Darmstad.

20.       1951. John Cage. Music of Changes.

21.       1953. Merce Cunningham.

22.       1954. Gutai.

23.       1960. Fluxus.

24.       1960. Vienesse Actionism

25.       1978. Pina Bausch.

26.       1982. Samuel Beckett.

1. AUTOMATON 1700: Greek term used to describe non-electronic moving machines, like clocks or cuckoos. In Ancient Greece, is a mechanism to calculate position of astronomical objects. In Medieval era is a humanoid automata. It appears in the “Book of Knowledge of Ingenious Mechanical Devices” in 1206. It was a boat with four automatic musicians that floated on a lake to entertain guests at royal drinking parties. A “robot band” which performed “more than fifty facial and body actions during each musical selection. In Modern age, Leonardo’s robot is a humanoid automaton designed around the year 1495. During the industrial revolution, Houdin, the magician, circa 1800, used it. In contemporary era exists the Cabaret Mechanical Theatre, London, UK. Finally, in electronic era there are androids, robotics and mechatronic performance. One artist is Theo Jansen, who develops those kinetic sculptures. Automatons go altogether music boxes, using same mechanism. Music boxes are the origin of wax cylinders and synthesizers.

– http://www.strandbeest.com/theo_ufo.php  – http://www.artmetamedia.net/pdf/Giannetti_Metaformance.pdf

1.automata 

2.  SAMUEL F. B. MORSE 1846: Telegraph http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iC5RQNSSZH0

3. EVP ELECTRONIC VOICE PHENOMENA. 1863: Eugene Thiebault. Promotional photograph. Henri Robin et un spectre, 1863. Print on albuminated paper / Albumen silver print . 22’9 x 17.4cm. Collection Gerard Levy. Paris. Electronic Voice Phenomena (EVP) are sounds found on electronic recordings which resemble speech, but are reportedly not the result of intentional recording or rendering. EVP are commonly found in recordings with static, stray radio transmissions, and background noise. Recordings of EVP are often produced by increasing the gain (i.e. sensitivity) of the recording equipment. Interest in EVP surrounds claims that they are of paranormal origin, although a number of natural explanations have been offered including apophenia (finding significance in insignificant phenomena), auditory pareidolia (interpreting random sounds as voices in one’s own language), equipment artifacts, and hoaxes. Parapsychologist Konstantin Raudive, who popularized the idea, described EVP as typically brief, usually the length of a word or short phrase. – http://arthistory.about.com/library/weekly/sp/bl_perfmed_rev.htm

3.EUGENE THIEBAULT

4. MUYBRIDGE, E. 1887: Woman Dancing (Fancy). Dancing body, it features Kate Larrigan (a ‘Danseuse from New York’ as he described her). Edweard Muybridge fundamentally changed how we think about photography. The images he produced in the late 19th century — sequential photographs of men walking, or horses at a gallop, their movements broken down frame by frame — have become iconic. Muybridge’s freeze-framed images of galloping horses made photography a medium about time and motion; in a series of images displayed in a grid, the animal is captured at split-second intervals, aloft and elastic. n 1982, Philip Glass premiered an opera about the tragedy called The Photographer. The opera mimicked themes — including musical repetition and incremental changes that carry great meaning — running throughout Muybridge’s work, says Brookman. He says Muybridge has influenced countless artists, from Degas to Sol Lewitt. The bands U2 and the Crystal Method have based music videos on Muybridge’s work. Even contemporary filmmakers using the latest technologies still crib from his textbook. http://www.eadweardmuybridge.co.uk/    http://3.bp.blogspot.com/_29Q2slWBvmY/TQpu3fLFXYI/AAAAAAAADXU/scf8CjgmiXk/s640/Dancing.jpg

4.muybridge Dancing

5. GRAMOPHONE. 1896: Gramophone facilitates first recordings. One of the first users of gramophone, it was Alan Lomax, with trip around U.S.A. recording blues-man and folk singers, he contributed to the History and influenced in Bob Dylan professional career. Now, Alan Lomax archive can be used as an archive for sound material.  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SZBLzv-zs9I

6. LOUI FULLER. 1896. She was a modern dancer. One of the first images captures, after Lumieres invited the cinema.  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fIrnFrDXjlk http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YNZ4WCFJGPc

6.Loie_Fuller

8. THOMAS ALVA EDISON. PHONOGRAPH. 1897. was more responsible than any one else for creating the modern world… no one did more to shape the physical/cultural makeup of present day civilization. he invented the phonograph and recording.

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/76/Advertising_Record.ogg

 

8. EDISON. MARCONI. TESLA. 1900: Discovering the Radio. Edison has the patent but Marconi and Tesla, also influenced. Furthermore, Nicola Tesla, was an inventor of such a great experiments for human communication. Nicola Tesla devised a system for wireless power transmission, in a way that the energy could be carried from one place to another by means of a non-Hertzian waves. His project streamlines in such conduct electricity wireless transfer. Or as driving power: by electromagnetic waves. He later tried to develop a system to send power wirelessly over long distances and wanted to implement in the project Wardenclyffe Tower, in fact, was to establish a global communications system that ended in failure due to lack of funding. Among others, his inventions include: Radios, no filament bulbs or fluorescent lamp, electrotherapy devices or diagnosis, especially an X-ray generator of a single electrode. There is also a patent register an ozone generator. Others are bladeless turbine, operated by fluid friction, Tesla Coil that delivered energy output a high voltage and high frequency. In addition, he operates theoretical principles of radar, Electric submarine, Mechanical vibrational oscillator, Teslascope, Remote Control, Spark Plug ignition combustion engines, STOL aircraft. Tesla demonstrated on many occasions that it is possible to send power through a single cable -by a single thread. Therefore, in this example, the common concept of voltage (potential difference), could be described simply saying that any potential voltage is not necessarily the difference. [Citation needed]. X-ray studies Radiogoniómetro.60 electric Teleodinamica. http://www.tesla-museum.org/

7. radio Tesla

9. FUTURISM: GIACOMO BALLA. 1912. BOCCCIONI. Futurism is a vanguard movement. Influenced by industrialism, velocity and reproduction it depicts the sense of movement. http://cv.uoc.edu/~04_999_01_u07/percepcions/balla.jpg

9. Futurist_pratella

9. LUIGI RUSSOLO. 1913. Futurist artist. He wrote The art of noises. 1913. (L’arte dei Rumori). A Futurist manifesto. Is a letter to the friend and Futurist composer Francesco Balilla Pratella. In it, Russolo argues that the human ear has become accustomed to the speed, energy, and noise of the urban industrial-soundscape; furthermore, this new sonic palette requires a new approach to musical instrumentation and composition. He proposes a number of conclusions about how electronics and other technology will allow futurist musicians to “substitute for the limited variety of timbres that the orchestra possesses today the infinite variety of timbres in noises, reproduced with appropriate mechanisms”. The Art of Noises is considered to be one of the most important and influential texts in 20th century musical aesthetics. Russolo’s essay explores the origins of man made sounds. “Ancient life was all silence” Russolo states that “noise” first came into existence as the result of 19th century machines. Before this time the world was a quiet, if not silent, place. With the exception of storms, waterfalls, and tectonic activity, the noise that did punctuate this silence were not loud, prolonged, or varied. He notes that the earliest “music” was very simplistic and was created with very simple instruments, and that many early civilizations considered the secrets of music sacred and reserved it for rites and rituals. He notes that while early music tried to create sweet and pure sounds, it progressively grew more and more complex, with musicians seeking to create new and more dissonant chords. This, he says, comes ever closer to the “noise-sound.” Russolo compares the evolution of music to the multiplication of machinery, pointing out that our once desolate sound environment has become increasingly filled with the noise of machines, encouraging musicians to create a more “complicated polyphony” in order to provoke emotion and stir our sensibilities. He notes that music has been developing towards a more complicated polyphony by seeking greater variety in timbres and tone colors. Russolo explains how “musical sound is too limited in its variety of timbres.” Russolo claims that music has reached a point that no longer has the power to excite or inspire. Even when it is new, he argues, it still sounds old and familiar, leaving the audience “waiting for the extraordinary sensation that never comes.” He urges musicians to explore the city with “ears more sensitive than eyes,” listening to the wide array of noises that are often taken for granted, yet (potentially) musical in nature. He feels these noises can be given pitch and “regulated harmonically,” while still preserving their irregularity and character, even if it requires assigning multiple pitches to certain noises. The variety of noises is infinite. If today, when we have perhaps a thousand different machines, we can distinguish a thousand different noises, tomorrow, as new machines multiply, we will be able to distinguish ten, twenty, or thirty thousand different noises, not merely in a simply imitative way, but to combine them according to our imagination. Russolo sees the futurist orchestra drawing its sounds from “six families of noise”: Roars, Thunderings, Explosions, Hissing roars, Bangs, Booms- Whistling, Hissing, Puffing . Whispers, Murmurs, Mumbling, Muttering, Gurgling. Screeching, Creaking, Rustling, Buzzing, Crackling, Scraping- Noises obtained by beating on metals, woods, skins, stones, pottery, etc.  Voices of animals and people, Shouts, Screams, Shrieks, Wails, Hoots, Howls, Death rattles, Sobs-  Russolo asserts that these are the most basic and fundamental noises, and that all other noises are only associations and combinations of these. Russolo includes a list of conclusions:  Futurist composers should use their creativity and innovation to “enlarge and enrich the field of sound” by approaching the “noise-sound.” Futurist musicians should strive to replicate the infinite timbres in noises. Futurist musicians should free themselves from the traditional and seek to explore the diverse rhythms of noise. The complex tonalities of noise can be achieved by creating instruments that replicate that complexity. The creation of instruments that replicate noise should not be a difficult task, since the manipulation of pitch will be simple once the mechanical principles that create the noise have been recreated. Pitch can be manipulated through simples changes in speed or tension. The new orchestra will not evoke new and novel emotions by imitating the noises of life, but by finding new and unique combinations of timbres and rhythms in noise, to find a way to fully express the rhythm and sound that stretches beyond normal un-inebriated comprehension. The variety of noise is infinite, and as man creates new machines the number of noises he can differentiate between continues to grow. Therefore, he invites all talented musicians to pay attention to noises and their complexity, and once they discover the broadness of noise’s palette of timbres, they will develop a passion for noise. He predicts that our “multiplied sensibility, having been conquered by futurist eyes, will finally have some futurist ears, and . . . every workshop will become an intoxicating orchestra of noise.”   ORIGINAL MANIFESTO HERE http://www.webcitation.org/5uY3woYNG   MUSIC http://archive.org/details/Luigi_Russolo_Futurism_Dada_Reviewed

9. The_Art_of_Noises

 

10. MARY WYGMAN. 1914. She was another German dancer. Experimental dance influenced by expressionism. Movement and sound integrated in the performance. Nazi  collaborationism. http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mary_Wigman    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Tp-Z07Yc5oQ

10. WigmanMary

11. DADAISM. TRISTAN TZARA. 1916: vanguard movement influenced by velocity and machine, discovered a criticism against massive production and reproduction. The value of language, joke and the transgress object, make the artist turn into more a practice based in dance, sound and performance. In Dada manifesto is specified the position against production in front of acting. Artist also did art-sound-works  http://www.sas.upenn.edu/~jenglish/English104/tzara.html   http://ubumexico.centro.org.mx/sound/tzara_tristan/Tzara_Janco-Hulsenbeck_Lamiral-cherche.mp3    http://ubumexico.centro.org.mx/sound/pick_anat/Pick_Anat_DADA_Sound_Poetry_2008_02.mp3

11.Tristan-Tzara-Man-Ray 

12. HUGO BALL. 1916. was a german author. poet and one of the leading dada artists. he was an inventor of dadaist phonetic poetry and maintained that we must withdraw into the deepest alchemy of words, reserving to poetry its most sacred ground.  In 1910, he moved to Berlin in order to become an actor and collaborated with Max Reinhardt and worked as a director and stage manager for various theater companies in Berlin, Plauen, and Munich. He also started writing, contributing to the expressionist journals Die Neue Kunst and Die Aktion, both of which, in style and in content, anticipated the format of later Dada journals. Soon after the outbreak of World Wat I he and Emmy Hennings, a cabaret singer whom he had met in Munich and whom he would marry in 1920, emigrated to Zurich, Switzerland. In February 1916 he founded the ‘Cabaret Voltaire’ in the Spiegelgasse. There he met with Hans Arp, Marcel Janco, Tristan Tzara, and later Richard Huelsenbeck and Walter Serner. In July 1916 Ball left the Dada circle in Zurich in order to recuperate in the Swiss countryside. He returned in January 1917 to help organize Galerie Dada, an exhibition space that opened in March 1917. Events at the Galerie included lectures, performances, dances, weekend soirées, and tours of the exhibitions. Although Ball supported the educative goals of the Galerie, he was at odds with Tzara over Tzara’s ambition to make Dada into an international movement with a systematic doctrine. He left Zurich in May 1917 and did not again actively participate in Dada activities.

 

13. LEON THEREMIN. 1920. Was a Russian inventor and innovator of electrical devices. his invention of the theremin. the world’s first electronic musical instrument gained him worldwide notoriety. In October 1920 he first demonstrated this to Ioffe who called in other professors and students to hear. Theremin recalled trying to find the notes for tunes he remembered from when he played the cello, such as the Swan by Saint-Saens. By November 1920 Theremin had given his first public concert with the instrument, now modified with a horizontal volume antenna replacing the earlier foot-operated volume control. He named it the “etherphone”, to be known as the Терменвокс (Termenvox) in the Soviet Union, as the Thereminvox in Germany,and later as the “theremin” in the United States.

File:Termen demonstrating Termenvox.jpg

 

12. SCHONBERG 1920: invented the atonality concept based in the twelve-note technique. He was changing also the concept of audience, reformulating the idea of spectacle, opera or artwork distingusing high culture  and popular culture. He used to say “My music is not lovely” (quoted by Theodor Adorno in his essay “Art and the Arts”, 1966). “My music is not modern, it is merely badly played” (Genette 1997, 102). “My works are 12-tone compositions, not 12-tone compositions” (Stuckenschmidt 1977, 349). “I was never revolutionary. The only revolutionary in our time was Strauss!” (Schoenberg 1975, 137)-  “…if it is art, it is not for all, and if it is for all, it is not art.” (Schoenberg 1984, 124) When told it would take a six-fingered violinist to play his violin concerto, Schoenberg replied: “I can wait.” When asked by students in class to define “good” music, Schoenberg said: “If you arrange a piece of music for zither and it still sounds good, that’s good music. http://archive.org/details/agp175      http://www.biu.ac.il/hu/mu/min-ad/06/

 

13. FERNAND LEGER 1924: Ballet Mécanique (1924) was a project by the American composer George Antheil and the filmmaker/artist Fernand Léger. Although the film was intended to use Antheil’s score as a soundtrack, the two parts were not brought together until the 1990s. As a composition, Ballet Mécanique is Antheil’s best known and most enduring work. It remains famous for its radical style and instrumentation as well as its storied history. Directors: Fernand Léger, Dudley Murphy. Writer: Fernand Léger. Stars: Fernand Léger, Dudley Murphy and Katherine Murphy   http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0014694/    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=H_bboH9p1Ys

13.fernand leger ballet mecanique

14. KINECT ART: NAUM GABO 1925: the kinect art of naum gabo is a pioneer in capturing movement and waves. For its originality, it remembers the works of Iannis Xenakis, an artist that tries to depict with sound wave projection a production of integrated senses, sound and vision. The result is unconventional and non-commercial and it has this awareness regarding the risks of production  http://www.tate.org.uk/art/artworks/gabo-circular-relief-t02142    http://www.iannis-xenakis.org/xen/

15. BERTOLD BRECHT: THE RADIO AS AN APPARATUS OF COMMUNICATION. 1926: Bertold Brecht it was a controversial theatre author and director. Its own sense and integrity in politics and ideology make him to contribute in social production of spectacle, culture and theatre. Against totalitarism and serialism of industrialism, he wrote this essay. An explanation of how hypermedia is an extension of human communication. It is an essay about augmented reality before augemented reality. It is a discourse about implementation and telerality where media communication is understood as interaction, considering all the senses. So, is a starting point for cybernetics and media art. http://www.cityofsound.com/blog/2004/02/bertolt_brecht_.html  http://telematic.walkerart.org/telereal/bit_brecht.html

 15. brecht raio art

16. BALLETS RUSSES. 1929: Ballets russes where formed by compositors such as Sergei Diaghilev, Igor Stravinsky, Claude Debussy, Eric Satie, Borodin, Webern and Ravel. and choreographers like Vaslav Nijinsky, Leonide Massine. Also participating, designers and scenographers such as Pablo Picasso, Henri Matisse, Leon Bask, Natalia Goncharova, Coco Chanel. The best productions were Parade and Le Sacre de Printemps.    – https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WATQDqjAOUc&list=PLCQ9iLmiahitcEylqMj_Z134M1lCGfjjk  – https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_Chq1Ty0nyE&list=PLCQ9iLmiahitcEylqMj_Z134M1lCGfjjk    – https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jkClPOUQBCU    – https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jZ0ueOQN9rk&list=PL99C5CAC75CA717D3

16.ballets russes

 

16. WALTER RUTTMAN. 1930 Symphony of a big city. ruttman had a background as a painter, filmmaker, a cellist, and violinist, he made weekend in 1928, the work was commisioned by hans flesch, director of berlin radio hour, he was concerned with exploiting the aethetic and technical opportunities of time based media. Walter Ruttmann (28 December 1887 – 15 July 1941) was a German film director and along with Hans Richter, Viking Eggeling and Oskar Fischinger was an early German practitioner of experimental film. Ruttmann was born in Frankfurt; he studied architecture and painting and worked as a graphic designer. His film career began in the early 1920s. His first abstract short films, “Lichtspiel: Opus I” (1921) and “Opus II” (1923), were experiments with new forms of film expression, and the influence of these early abstract films can be seen in some of the early work of Oskar Fischinger. Ruttmann and his colleagues of the avant garde movement enriched the language of film as a medium with new form techniques. Ruttmann was a prominent exponent of both avant-garde art and music. His early abstractions played at the 1929 Baden-Baden Festival to international acclaim despite their being almost eight years old. Ruttmann licensed a Wax Slicing machine from Oskar Fischinger to create special effects for Lotte Reiniger. Together with Erwin Piscator, he worked on the experimental film Melodie der Welt (1929), though he is best remembered for Berlin: Die Sinfonie der Grobstadt  (Berlin: Symphony of a Great City, 1927). During the Nazi period he worked as an assistant to director Leni Riefenstahl on  Triumph of the Will  (1935). He died in Berlin .

Weekend (1930) 11’10”. Weekend is a pioneering work from the early days of radio, commissioned in 1928 by Berlin Radio Hour. In a collage of words, music fragments and sounds, the film-maker and media artist Walter Ruttmann presented on 13 June 1930 a radically innovative radio piece: an acoustic picture of a Berlin weekend urban landscape. Before making Weekend, Ruttmann had produced the experimental documentary Berlin-Symphony of a Great City(1927) as well as a number of short, experimental abstract animations. After his experience with his films, Ruttmann deliberately sought possibilities for producing an audio-film for radio. “Everything audible in the world becomes material,” he wrote in a manifesto in 1929, prefiguring Schaeffer, Varese, Cage and the other giants of the musical avant-garde. Tones and sounds should exist in their own right. For Weekend they were recorded as arbitrary and intentional elements on the soundtrack of an optical sound film using the so-called Tri-Ergon process. For the first time an artistic radio production was created whose material could be assembled and designed according to rhythmic, musical principles.  The original of Weekend was long considered lost. A copy was only rediscovered in New York in 1978. http://sfsound.org/tape/ruttmann.html

 

17. MARCEL DUCHAMP. 1951. La Mariée mise à nu par ses célibataires meme and  La Mariée mise à nu par ses célibataires même. Erratum Musical is an unfinished and was never published or exhibited during Duchamp’s lifetime. According to the manuscript, the piece was intended for a mechanical instrument “in which the virtuoso intermediary is suppressed”. The manuscript also contains a description for “An apparatus automatically recording fragmented musical periods”, consisting of a funnel, several open-end carss and a set of numbered balls. These pieces predate John Cage’s Music of Changes (1951), which is often considered the first modern piece to be conceived largely through random procedures.  In 1968, Duchamp and John Cage appeared together at a concert entitled “Reunion”, playing a game of chess and composing Aleatoric music by triggering a series of photoelectric cells underneath the chessboard. http://www.allmusic.com/song/erratum-musical-la-mari%C3%A9e-mise-%C3-nu-par-ses-c%C3%A9libataires-m%C3%AAme-mt0028580312

17.cagge duchamp

18. ANTONIN ARTAUD. THEATER OF CRUELTY.1938.  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qJDgWywHLtw

19. DARMSTADT. 1950.  Is a school of music. From traditional and classical roots, Darmstadt broke the lineal history of music. With Berg, Webern, Messiaehn, Varese,  Stockhausen and Boulez, opened a new tendency in music. Natural sounds, recordings of birds, etc…. the composers were Schonberg student’s. They worked with Audio recordings and first synthesizers. They are the pioneers of electronic music, 1910-1968. Stockhausen, Varese and Schaffer. Darmstadt was a summer school where musician as Stockhausen were lecturing, like in the 12th International Summer Courses for New Music in Darmstadt, 1957. Conducted by the influence of Stockhausen, Pierre Schaffer  started in the 1960 the idea of Concrete Music and ElectoAcoustic compositions. Listen archive

Darmstadt, Internationaler Kurs für neue Musik

20. JOHN CAGE. Wrote Music of changes. Influenced by orientalism, silence against composition and naturalism. Music of change is one of the artworks that develop the idea regarding music an art of movement. According traditional arts, there are spatial art and time arts. After abolishing the sense of time, in modern tradition, considering performance and sense of time as only a present coordinate, music of changes, states this idea about music as movement and lively life. For resources of John Cage: UbuWeb: historicalsoundfilm. This concept of time as present depends as well on the idea of Indeterminacy. John Cage has been a references for artists nowadays. Emmanuele Pimenta da Melo, exhibited in Venice Biennale 2011 an artwork based in him. From the MIT college, E.Da Pimenta, operated a software for musical writtng based in john cage compositions. More on John cage in The Anarchy of Silence. John Cage and Experimental Art (2009) a lecture by Julia E. Robinson on occasion of Cage’s exhibition at the MACBA, Barcelona. Also Notes towards a re-reading of the “Roaratorio” the work of John Cage and his special relationship to radio at Ràdio Web MACBA. And finally, archive.org http://archive.org/details/JohnCage1971-05-20

17.cage duchhamp

21. MERCE CUNNINGHAM. 1953. He was an American dancer. Working with John Cage and Duchamp. They 3 are the most important artists fro the XXth Century for the development of art, dance and music. They had a very opened mind, working with intermedia and in connection with intellectuals and media corporations. Changing the intention of the artwork and the definition of human behaviour, its results were optimal. The best artworks were those that referring representation as a fake, turning into naturalistic sound and composition to express evolution. Its experimental exercises on sound and music mixed with media new techniques can be seen here   http://www.mercecunningham.org/newwebsite/   http://archive.org/details/cjmNoiseElement1   http://search.atomz.com/search/?sp_a=sp10042f50&sp_q=merce+cunningham&sp_p=all&sp_f=UTF-8

20. merce

22. GUTAI. 1954. The Gutai group (具体; means “Embodiment”) is the first radical, post-war group in Japan. It was founded by the painter Jiro Yoshihara in Osaka, Japan, 1954, in response to the reactionary artistic context of the time. This influential group known as Gutai Bijutsu Kyokai was involved in large-scale multimedia environments, performances and theatrical events. According to the official website of Shozo Shimamoto, Shimamoto and Yoshihara founded Gutai together in 1954, and it was Shimamoto who suggested the name Gutai, which contrary to popular belief does not mean concrete but embodiment (according to this source) ”The kangi used to write ‘gu’ means tool, measures, and a way of doing something, while ‘tai’ means body. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EWctXXGeJMA&list=PL8BA158CCAD4224DC

22. FLUXUS EAT 9evenings_poster_72

 

23. FLUXUS. 1960: was formed by Dick Higgins, George Brecht, Maciunas, Driscoll,  Allan Kaprow, La Monte Young. They participated in the Experiments in Art and Technology – E.A.T. with Billy Kluver, an engineer from Bell telephone laboratories. The results: Video projections, wireless sound transmission, Doppler sonars, immersive dome structure consisted of a Buckminster Fuller-style geodesic dome covered by a water vapor cloud sculpture, a Mylar mirror fitted inside the structure. The optical effect in the spherical mirror produced real images resembling that of a hologram. This is a kinetic sculpture, an electronic artwork, a monumental immsersive technological project. This is Digital art. A Multimedia technology art exploration. Fluxus is an Art and science movement. With Performance art, Noise music, Theatre, Dada, Fluxus and Happenings. Fluxus produced 9 Evenings with E.A.T.  Theatre and Engineering series of performances from October 13–23, 1966, where artists and engineers collaborated in a series of 9 Evenings: Theatre and Engineering was conjured up by Robert Rauschenberg and Billy Klüver. It was originally intended to be presented as part of the Stockholm Festival of Art and Technology in 1966. But when the festival’s negotiations fell through, Billy Klüver moved the event to the 69th Regiment Armory and called it 9 Evenings: Theatre and Engineering. The participants consisted of 10 artists and some 30 engineers to create a blend of avant-garde theatre, dance and new technologies. 9 Evenings was the first large-scale collaboration between artists and engineers and scientists. The two groups worked together for 10 months to develop technical equipment and systems that were used as an integral part of the artists’ performances. Their collaboration produced many “firsts” in the use of new technology for the theatre, both with specially-designed systems and equipment and with innovative use of existing equipment. Closed-circuit television and television projection was used on stage for the first time; a fiber-optics camera picked up objects in a performer’s pocket; an infrared television camera captured action in total darkness; a Doppler sonar device translated movement into sound; and portable wireless FM transmitters and amplifiers transmitted speech and body sounds to Armory loudspeakers. Artists involved with 9 Evenings include: John Cage, Lucinda Childs, Öyvind Fahlström, Alex Hay, Deborah Hay, Steve Paxton, Yvonne Rainer, Robert Rauschenberg, David Tudor, and Robert Whitman. Notable engineers involved include: Bela Julesz, Billy Klüver, Max Mathews, John Pierce, Manfred Schroeder, and Fred Waldhauer.

LINK http://www.9evenings.org

Variations VII John Cage
Vehicle Lucinda Childs
Kisses Sweeter Than Wine Öyvind Fahlström
Grass Field Alex Hay
Solo Deborah Hay
Physical Things Steve Paxton
Carriage Discreteness Yvonne Rainer
Open Score Robert Rauschenberg
Bandoneon! (A Combine) David Tudor (performance engineer Fred Waldhauer)
Two Holes of Water – 3 Robert Whitman

22. fluxus. VariationsVII_small

24. VIENESSE ACTIONISM. 1960. Otto muehl satisfaction. http://www.ubu.com/film/muehl_satisfaction.html http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hKzmsgXz5GM&list=RD02Gj5NoVOEDNg

25. PINA BAUSCH. http://www.pina-bausch.de/en/pina_bausch/

26. SAMUEL BECKETT. http://www.ubu.com/film/beckett_quad.html

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lrwMMF2QS14&list=RD02OM9b3uUQ2zI

 

 

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